Mizoram is one of the states of Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital. The name is derived from Mi (people), Zo (hill) and Ram (land), and thus Mizoram implies "land of the hill people". In the northeast, it is the southern most landlocked state sharing borders with three of the seven sister states, namelyTripura, Assam, Manipur. The state also shares a 722 kilometer border with the neighbouring countries ofBangladesh and Myanmar.
Like several other northeastern states of India, Mizoram was previously part of Assam until 1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory. It became the 23rd state of India, a step above Union Territory, on 20 February 1987.
About 95% of current Mizoram population is of diverse tribal origins who settled in the state, mostly from southeast Asia, over waves of migration starting about 16th century but mainly in 18th century. This is the highest concentration of tribal people among all states of India, and they are currently protected under Indian constitution as Scheduled Tribe. The tribes converted from Animist religions to Christianity over the first half of 20th century. Mizoram is one of three states of India with a Christian majority (87%). Mizoram is a highly literate agrarian economy, but suffers from slash-and-burn jhum or shifting cultivation, and poor crop yields. In recent years, the jhum farming practices are steadily being replaced with a significant horticulture and bamboo products industry. The state's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at 6991 crore (US$1.1 billion). About 20% of Mizoram's population lives below poverty line, with 35% rural poverty.The state has about 871 kilometers of national highways, with NH-54 and NH-150 connecting it to Assam and Manipur respectively. It is also a growing transit point for trade with Myanmar and Bangladesh.
Flora and Fauna:
The state has dense bamboo forests. Rivers run in narrow ribbons that seem to be challenging the onlookers to plunge in for some adventure and entertainment. The hill ranges standing in north-south direction are brilliant with green plantations throughout the year. Orchids are abundant in Mizoram. Epiphytic orchids are greater in number than terrestrial ones. Some of the rare species of orchids endemic to Mizoram consist of fine foliage and bright flowers of great interest to garden lovers. The highest peak, Phawngpui Mountain (vast meadow), also known as Blue Mountain, a garden of rhododendron of arboretum and veitchianum species is 2,065 m (7,100 ft) high. There are a number of hilly streams and rivers which murmur through picture postcard scenario. The forests house some of the rare varieties of orchids that are found only in this region.
The forest area of Mizoram is inhabited by swamp deer, tiger, leopard, elephant and hoolock gibbon. Mizoram can boast of a variety of wild life famous Wildlife National Parks and sanctuaries like animal population is accumulated mostly in the Dampa Sanctuary, established in 1976 at the north-western tip of Mizo hills. Available records show that a wide range of insects, Molluscs, Crustaceans, a few 1,000 species of insects, about 12 species of Butterflies and Moths , 20 of Beetles, 13 of Molluscs and various types of Snails are found in Mizoram. Seven species of Owls, 10 of Pheasants, 12 of Hawks and Eagles, 11 of Bulbuls belonging to 13 families, nine of Egrets and Herons too exist here. The wildlife tours includes sighgting of mammals like of Black and Wild Bear Tiger, Leopard, Hoolock Gibbon, Chinese Pangolin, Clawless Otter, Porcupine and Mongoose.
Weather & Rainfall
Mizoram has a mild climate, relatively cool in summer 20 to 29 °C (68 to 84 °F) and winter temperatures range from 7 to 22 °C (45 to 72 °F). The region is influenced by monsoons, raining heavily from May to September with little rain in the dry (cold) season. The climate pattern is moist tropical to moist sub-tropical, with average state rainfall 254 centimetres (100 in) per annum. In the capital Aizawl, rainfall is about 215 centimetres (85 in) and in Lunglei, another major centre, about 350 centimetres (140 in). The state is in a region where cyclones and landslides can cause weather-related emergencies.